The Theory of Passing the Qin Dynasty is the representative work of Jia Yizheng’s thesis. This article aims to summarize the historical lessons of the rapid fall of the Qin Dynasty and use it as a reference for the Han Dynasty to establish a system and consolidate its rule. It is a group of profound and artistically appealing articles. It is divided into three chapters. The first chapter first tells the reasons why Qin became stronger from Duke Xiao to the first emperor: the advantages of geography, the idea of implementing reforms to strengthen oneself, the correct war strategy, and the painstaking efforts of several Qin kings, etc. The line uses prose and a descriptive method, which is very powerful. After that, Chen Shibu is able to overthrow the powerful Qin state despite his small power, and concludes that the fall of Qin was due to “the lack of benevolence and justice”. The middle part analyzes that there was no correct policy after Qin unified the world, and Qin Ershi failed to correct Qin Shihuang’s wrong policy, mainly accusing Qin Ershi of his fault. In the second part, Zi Ying, the king of Qin, has no talent to save the nation and help the poor, and mainly accuses Zi Ying, the king of Qin, of his negligence. The following is to share the original text and translation of the previous article.
According to Xiaohan, Duke Xiao of Qin clung to the land of Yongzhou, the Emperor and his ministers clung to the Zhou dynasty to see the room, which swept the world, including the universe, including the intention to swallow the heart of the wilderness. When the time is also, Shang Jun with the legislation, farming and weaving, the practice of war, even outside the balance and fighting vassals. So the people of Qin handed it over to the West River.
Translation: Qin Xiaogong occupies the dangerous terrain of Xianshan and Hangu Pass, owns the land of Yongzhou, Qin Xiaogong occupies the dangerous terrain of Xianshan and Hangu Pass, (Qin Xiaogong) has the intention of sweeping the world, encompassing the heavens and universes, encompassing the four seas, and ruling the world. At this time, Shang Yang assisted him in establishing internal laws and regulations, engaging in farming and textiles, building defensive and offensive equipment, and implementing a strategy of even balance to the outside world, so that the princes could fight against each other. Therefore, the Qin people easily seized the land west of the Yellow River.
The original text: Since the Duke of filial piety did not exist, Huiwen, Wu, and Zhaoxiang had inherited their business. As a result, they took Hanzhong in the south, Ba and Shu in the west, fertile land in the east, and vital prefectures in the north. Feudal fear, alliance and seek weak Qin, don’t love treasure treasure fertile land, so that the people of the world, from the association, with one. At this time, Qi had Lord Mengchang, Zhao had the plain, Chu had chunshen, Wei had xinling. They were wise and faithful, generous and loving, respectful and wise, and were all from Legheng, Korea, Cao Wei, Zeta Capricorni, Chu, Qi, Zhao, song, Wei and Zhongshan. So the men of the Six Kingdoms, including Ning Yue, Xu Shang, Su Qin and Du He, had their own plans; Qi Ming, Zhou Zui, Chen Zhen, Zhao Hua, Lou Huan, Zhai Jing, Su Li and Le Yi had their own ideas; W By ten times, millions of audiences, where the attack of the qin dynasty. So he lost the covenant and fought for land and bribed Qin.Qin had the spare power to control its shortcomings, chasing after the north, ambushing millions of corpses, bleeding and drifting;Because of profit, slaughter the world and divide the mountains and rivers. Strong countries Please, weak countries enter the DPRK.
After the death of Qin Xiaogong, King Huiwen, King Wu, and King Zhaoxiang inherited the previous foundation and followed the strategy of the previous generation to seize Hanzhong to the south, Ba and Shu to the west, fertile areas to the east, and very important areas to the north. The princes panicked and feared, rallied to form alliances, and discussed to weaken the state of Qin. Do not spare precious and heavy utensils and fertile and fertile land, which are used to recruit outstanding talents in the world, use the strategy of combination to conclude covenants, help each other, and become one. At this time, the State of Qi Meng Chang Jun, the State of Zhao Pingyuan, the State of Chu Chun Shen Jun, the State of Wei Xinling Jun. These four emperors saw that they were wise and resourceful, sincere and faithful, magnanimous and kind-hearted and cherishing the people, respecting talents and attaching importance to intellectuals, and breaking Qin’s horizontal strategy with a longitudinal covenant. Unite with the troops of South Korea, the State of Wei and Yan, the State of Chu, the State of Zhao and Song, Wei and Zhongshan. At this time, scholars from the Six Kingdoms, including Ning Yue, Xu Shang, Su Qin, Su Qin, Qi Ming, Zhou Zhi, Chen Zhen, Zhao Hua, Lou Yan, Zhai Jing, Su Li, Le Yi and others communicated their opinions. Wu Qi, Sun Bin, Daituo, Ni Liang, Wang Liao, Tian Ji, Lian Po, Zhao She and others led their army. They once attacked the State of Qin with ten times the land of Qin and millions of troops. The Qin people opened the Hangu Pass to meet the enemy, and the armies of the nine countries hesitated to enter. The Qin people did not spend a soldier, but the vassals of the world were in distress. Therefore, the treaty failed, and the vassal states fought to cede their land to bribe Qin. Qin had the remaining strength to subdue them while they were tired and tired, chasing after the fleeing defeated soldiers, and the millions of defeated soldiers were dead on the road, and the flowing blood could float at the shield. Depending on this favorable situation, the state of Qin cut off all the land under the world and redivided the regions of mountains and rivers. Strong states voluntarily submitted to the Qin Dynasty, the weak states to worship.
Original text: Extending to King Xiaowen and King Zhuang Xiang, enjoying the country’s daylight, and the country is fine. As far as the first emperor, the survivors of the sixth life, vigorously pursued strategies and impoverished the inner world, swallowed the princes for two weeks, acted as the supreme and controlled the Liuhe, held on to beat and flog the world, and vigorously vibrated the world. Taking the land of Baiyue in the south, I thought it was Guilin and Xiangjun; the monarch of Baiyue bowed his head and tied his neck, and commissioned his officials. So Meng Tian built the Great Wall in the north and guarded the fence, but the Huns were more than 700 miles away; The Hu did not dare to go south and herd horses, and the soldiers did not dare to bend their bows and report their grievances. Then abolished the way of the previous king, burned the words of a hundred schools, to fool the Qian; overthrow the famous city, kill the heroes; collect the world’s troops, gathered in Xianyang, pin the dysprosium, cast for the Golden Man twelve, to weaken the people of the world. Then build Huawei into a city, because the river is a pool. According to the city of 100 million feet, it is facing an unexpected abyss, and it is thought to be solid. Keep a good crossbow at the key point, and believe in Chen Libing, who is a good pawn. The world has been set, the first emperor’s heart, thinking that Guanzhong is solid, Jincheng is a thousand miles away, and the future generations of emperors are immortal. Continued to King Xiaowen and King Zhuang Xiang, the reign was not long, and nothing major happened in the State of Qin. Qin Shi Huang took the land of Baiyue to the south and divided it into Guilin and Xiang counties, while the monarch of Baiyue, with his head bowed and a rope around his neck (willing to surrender) , gave his life to the magistrates. Qin Shi Huang then ordered Meng Tian to build the Great Wall in the north, guard the border, and make the Xiongnu retreat more than 700 li; The Hu people did not dare to go down to the south to graze, and the warriors did not dare to draw their bows and shoot arrows to take revenge. The First Emperor of Qin then abolished the ancient emperors’ way of governing the world and burned the writings of hundreds of schools to make the people stupid; destroyed the tall city walls and killed the heroes; confiscated the weapons of the world and concentrated in Xianyang, concentrated in Xianyang, Destroy the blades and arrows, smelt them and cast twelve bronze figures in order to weaken the resistance of the people. Then with Huashan as the city wall, according to the Yellow River as the city, with the towering Huashan, looking down at the unfathomable Yellow River, I think this is a dangerous place. Good generals hold strong crossbows and guard the vital places. Reliable officials and elite soldiers, holding sharp weapons, interrogate passers-. The world has been stable, the first emperor thought in his heart, the dangerous solid terrain of the Guanzhong, a thousand miles around the solid city defense, is the inheritance of children and grandchildren proclaimed themselves emperors and kings until ten thousand generations.
The first emperor neither, Yu Wei shock in the special customs. But Chen Wengyou Rope Shu’s son, a rogue slave, and the migrants are also less able than the Chinese, not Confucius, Mozi’s sage, Tao Zhu, Yi ton rich; In the midst of creeping in the army and stubbornly rising in the fields, hundreds of people were turned to attack Qin; Chopping wood is a weapon, and uncovering a pole is a flag. The world gathers to Shandong hao handsome and died after qin yi. The hoe is not the hook and halberd;The people who are not fighting against the Nine Kingdoms;Forethought, the way of the army, not the time of the time.However, success or failure changes, merit is the opposite, why not? Try to make the country of Shandong and Chen Liangdu grow larger than power, but not in the same year. However, the land of the Qin-Yi District, to the extent of universal multiplication, in the first eight states and the same column, for more than 100 years; Then take Liuhe as home and Xiaohan as palace; One man is in trouble and seven temples are broken. He is dead and has no hands. He laughs for the world? The attack and defense of benevolence and justice are different.
Translation: After the death of the First Emperor, his Yu Wei (still) shocked the remote areas. However, Chen Shen was just a poor child of a poor family with broken urns as windows and straw ropes as household hubs. He was a hooligan and a servant, and (later) became a pawn who was relocated to the frontier; Talent is not as good as ordinary people, not as virtuous as Kong Qiu and Mozhai, nor as rich as Tao Zhu and Zhai; (he) joined the ranks of garrison, suddenly rose up from the fields, led tired and weak soldiers, commanded a procession of hundreds of men, turned around to attack the State of Qin, cut down trees as weapons, held up bamboo poles as flags, and heroes of the world gathered like clouds, echoed him, and followed him like a shadow. The heroes and heroines to the east of Xiaoshan went together and wiped out the Qin family. Besides, the world did not shrink and weaken that day. The terrain of Yongzhou, the danger of Lingshan and Hangu Pass, remained the same. Chen She was not a monarch of Qi, Chu, Yan, Zhao, Korea, Wei, Song, Wei, and Zhongshan; The hoe stick is no sharper than the hook halberd spear; Nor could the relegated soldiers compete with the nine states’ troops; nor could they match the former generals of the nine states. But the good conditions fail and the poor conditions succeed, the opposite, why? If you compare the Eastern states with Chen She in length and size, and measure their power and strength, they cannot be compared. However, by virtue of its small territory, Qin developed into a state with 10,000 chariots, ruled the whole country, and brought all the vassals of the six states to court for more than one hundred years. After that, he took the world as his family business, and used Xiaoshan and Hangu Pass as his inner palace; Chen She rebelled and the country perished, and Prince Qin died in the hands of others (Xiang Yu), and was ridiculed by the people of the world. Why is this? Woolen cloth? Just because of not implementing benevolent government, the situation of offense and defense has changed.